1====== Formatting Syntax ======
2
3[[doku>DokuWiki]] supports some simple markup language, which tries to make the datafiles to be as readable as possible. This page contains all possible syntax you may use when editing the pages. Simply have a look at the source of this page by pressing "Edit this page". If you want to try something, just use the [[playground:playground|playground]] page. The simpler markup is easily accessible via [[doku>toolbar|quickbuttons]], too.
4
5===== Basic Text Formatting =====
6
7DokuWiki supports **bold**, //italic//, __underlined__ and ''monospaced'' texts. Of course you can **__//''combine''//__** all these.
8
9  DokuWiki supports **bold**, //italic//, __underlined__ and ''monospaced'' texts.
10  Of course you can **__//''combine''//__** all these.
11
12You can use <sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>, too.
13
14  You can use <sub>subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup>, too.
15
16You can mark something as <del>deleted</del> as well.
17
18  You can mark something as <del>deleted</del> as well.
19
20**Paragraphs** are created from blank lines. If you want to **force a newline** without a paragraph, you can use two backslashes followed by a whitespace or the end of line.
21
22This is some text with some linebreaks\\ Note that the
23two backslashes are only recognized at the end of a line\\
24or followed by\\ a whitespace \\this happens without it.
25
26  This is some text with some linebreaks\\ Note that the
27  two backslashes are only recognized at the end of a line\\
28  or followed by\\ a whitespace \\this happens without it.
29
30You should use forced newlines only if really needed.
31
32===== Links =====
33
34DokuWiki supports multiple ways of creating links.
35
36==== External ====
37
38External links are recognized automagically: http://www.google.com or simply www.google.com - You can set the link text as well: [[http://www.google.com|This Link points to google]]. Email addresses like this one: <andi@splitbrain.org> are recognized, too.
39
40  DokuWiki supports multiple ways of creating links. External links are recognized
41  automagically: http://www.google.com or simply www.google.com - You can set
42  link text as well: [[http://www.google.com|This Link points to google]]. Email
43  addresses like this one: <andi@splitbrain.org> are recognized, too.
44
45==== Internal ====
46
47Internal links are created by using square brackets. You can either just give a [[pagename]] or use an additional [[pagename|link text]].
48
49  Internal links are created by using square brackets. You can either just give
50  a [[pagename]] or use an additional [[pagename|link text]].
51
52[[doku>pagename|Wiki pagenames]] are converted to lowercase automatically, special characters are not allowed.
53
54You can use [[some:namespaces]] by using a colon in the pagename.
55
56  You can use [[some:namespaces]] by using a colon in the pagename.
57
58For details about namespaces see [[doku>namespaces]].
59
60Linking to a specific section is possible, too. Just add the section name behind a hash character as known from HTML. This links to [[syntax#internal|this Section]].
61
62  This links to [[syntax#internal|this Section]].
63
64Notes:
65
66  * Links to [[syntax|existing pages]] are shown in a different style from [[nonexisting]] ones.
67  * DokuWiki does not use [[wp>CamelCase]] to automatically create links by default, but this behavior can be enabled in the [[doku>config]] file. Hint: If DokuWiki is a link, then it's enabled.
68  * When a section's heading is changed, its bookmark changes, too. So don't rely on section linking too much.
69
70==== Interwiki ====
71
72DokuWiki supports [[doku>Interwiki]] links. These are quick links to other Wikis. For example this is a link to Wikipedia's page about Wikis: [[wp>Wiki]].
73
74  DokuWiki supports [[doku>Interwiki]] links. These are quick links to other Wikis.
75  For example this is a link to Wikipedia's page about Wikis: [[wp>Wiki]].
76
77==== Windows Shares ====
78
79Windows shares like [[\\server\share|this]] are recognized, too. Please note that these only make sense in a homogeneous user group like a corporate [[wp>Intranet]].
80
81  Windows Shares like [[\\server\share|this]] are recognized, too.
82
83Notes:
84
85  * For security reasons direct browsing of windows shares only works in Microsoft Internet Explorer per default (and only in the "local zone").
86  * For Mozilla and Firefox it can be enabled through different workaround mentioned in the [[http://kb.mozillazine.org/Links_to_local_pages_do_not_work|Mozilla Knowledge Base]]. However, there will still be a JavaScript warning about trying to open a Windows Share. To remove this warning (for all users), put the following line in ''conf/lang/en/lang.php'' (more details at [[doku>localization#changing_some_localized_texts_and_strings_in_your_installation|localization]]): <code - conf/lang/en/lang.php>
87<?php
88/**
89 * Customization of the english language file
90 * Copy only the strings that needs to be modified
91 */
92$lang['js']['nosmblinks'] = '';
93</code>
94
95==== Image Links ====
96
97You can also use an image to link to another internal or external page by combining the syntax for links and [[#images_and_other_files|images]] (see below) like this:
98
99  [[http://php.net|{{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}]]
100
101[[http://php.net|{{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}]]
102
103Please note: The image formatting is the only formatting syntax accepted in link names.
104
105The whole [[#images_and_other_files|image]] and [[#links|link]] syntax is supported (including image resizing, internal and external images and URLs and interwiki links).
106
107===== Footnotes =====
108
109You can add footnotes ((This is a footnote)) by using double parentheses.
110
111  You can add footnotes ((This is a footnote)) by using double parentheses.
112
113===== Sectioning =====
114
115You can use up to five different levels of headlines to structure your content. If you have more than three headlines, a table of contents is generated automatically -- this can be disabled by including the string ''<nowiki>~~NOTOC~~</nowiki>'' in the document.
116
117==== Headline Level 3 ====
118=== Headline Level 4 ===
119== Headline Level 5 ==
120
121  ==== Headline Level 3 ====
122  === Headline Level 4 ===
123  == Headline Level 5 ==
124
125By using four or more dashes, you can make a horizontal line:
126
127----
128
129===== Media Files =====
130
131You can include external and internal [[doku>images|images, videos and audio files]] with curly brackets. Optionally you can specify the size of them.
132
133Real size:                        {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}
134
135Resize to given width:            {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?50}}
136
137Resize to given width and height((when the aspect ratio of the given width and height doesn't match that of the image, it will be cropped to the new ratio before resizing)): {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?200x50}}
138
139Resized external image:           {{https://secure.php.net/images/php.gif?200x50}}
140
141  Real size:                        {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}
142  Resize to given width:            {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?50}}
143  Resize to given width and height: {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?200x50}}
144  Resized external image:           {{https://secure.php.net/images/php.gif?200x50}}
145
146
147By using left or right whitespaces you can choose the alignment.
148
149{{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}
150
151{{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png }}
152
153{{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png }}
154
155  {{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png}}
156  {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png }}
157  {{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png }}
158
159Of course, you can add a title (displayed as a tooltip by most browsers), too.
160
161{{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png |This is the caption}}
162
163  {{ wiki:dokuwiki-128.png |This is the caption}}
164
165For linking an image to another page see [[#Image Links]] above.
166
167==== Supported Media Formats ====
168
169DokuWiki can embed the following media formats directly.
170
171| Image | ''gif'', ''jpg'', ''png''  |
172| Video | ''webm'', ''ogv'', ''mp4'' |
173| Audio | ''ogg'', ''mp3'', ''wav''  |
174| Flash | ''swf''                    |
175
176If you specify a filename that is not a supported media format, then it will be displayed as a link instead.
177
178By adding ''?linkonly'' you provide a link to the media without displaying it inline
179
180  {{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?linkonly}}
181
182{{wiki:dokuwiki-128.png?linkonly}} This is just a link to the image.
183
184==== Fallback Formats ====
185
186Unfortunately not all browsers understand all video and audio formats. To mitigate the problem, you can upload your file in different formats for maximum browser compatibility.
187
188For example consider this embedded mp4 video:
189
190  {{video.mp4|A funny video}}
191
192When you upload a ''video.webm'' and ''video.ogv'' next to the referenced ''video.mp4'', DokuWiki will automatically add them as alternatives so that one of the three files is understood by your browser.
193
194Additionally DokuWiki supports a "poster" image which will be shown before the video has started. That image needs to have the same filename as the video and be either a jpg or png file. In the example above a ''video.jpg'' file would work.
195
196===== Lists =====
197
198Dokuwiki supports ordered and unordered lists. To create a list item, indent your text by two spaces and use a ''*'' for unordered lists or a ''-'' for ordered ones.
199
200  * This is a list
201  * The second item
202    * You may have different levels
203  * Another item
204
205  - The same list but ordered
206  - Another item
207    - Just use indention for deeper levels
208  - That's it
209
210<code>
211  * This is a list
212  * The second item
213    * You may have different levels
214  * Another item
215
216  - The same list but ordered
217  - Another item
218    - Just use indention for deeper levels
219  - That's it
220</code>
221
222Also take a look at the [[doku>faq:lists|FAQ on list items]].
223
224===== Text Conversions =====
225
226DokuWiki can convert certain pre-defined characters or strings into images or other text or HTML.
227
228The text to image conversion is mainly done for smileys. And the text to HTML conversion is used for typography replacements, but can be configured to use other HTML as well.
229
230==== Text to Image Conversions ====
231
232DokuWiki converts commonly used [[wp>emoticon]]s to their graphical equivalents. Those [[doku>Smileys]] and other images can be configured and extended. Here is an overview of Smileys included in DokuWiki:
233
234  * 8-) %%  8-)  %%
235  * 8-O %%  8-O  %%
236  * :-( %%  :-(  %%
237  * :-) %%  :-)  %%
238  * =)  %%  =)   %%
239  * :-/ %%  :-/  %%
240  * :-\ %%  :-\  %%
241  * :-? %%  :-?  %%
242  * :-D %%  :-D  %%
243  * :-P %%  :-P  %%
244  * :-O %%  :-O  %%
245  * :-X %%  :-X  %%
246  * :-| %%  :-|  %%
247  * ;-) %%  ;-)  %%
248  * ^_^ %%  ^_^  %%
249  * m(  %%  m(   %%
250  * :?: %%  :?:  %%
251  * :!: %%  :!:  %%
252  * LOL %%  LOL  %%
253  * FIXME %%  FIXME %%
254  * DELETEME %% DELETEME %%
255
256==== Text to HTML Conversions ====
257
258Typography: [[DokuWiki]] can convert simple text characters to their typographically correct entities. Here is an example of recognized characters.
259
260-> <- <-> => <= <=> >> << -- --- 640x480 (c) (tm) (r)
261"He thought 'It's a man's world'..."
262
263<code>
264-> <- <-> => <= <=> >> << -- --- 640x480 (c) (tm) (r)
265"He thought 'It's a man's world'..."
266</code>
267
268The same can be done to produce any kind of HTML, it just needs to be added to the [[doku>entities|pattern file]].
269
270There are three exceptions which do not come from that pattern file: multiplication entity (640x480), 'single' and "double quotes". They can be turned off through a [[doku>config:typography|config option]].
271
272===== Quoting =====
273
274Some times you want to mark some text to show it's a reply or comment. You can use the following syntax:
275
276<code>
277I think we should do it
278
279> No we shouldn't
280
281>> Well, I say we should
282
283> Really?
284
285>> Yes!
286
287>>> Then lets do it!
288</code>
289
290I think we should do it
291
292> No we shouldn't
293
294>> Well, I say we should
295
296> Really?
297
298>> Yes!
299
300>>> Then lets do it!
301
302===== Tables =====
303
304DokuWiki supports a simple syntax to create tables.
305
306^ Heading 1      ^ Heading 2       ^ Heading 3          ^
307| Row 1 Col 1    | Row 1 Col 2     | Row 1 Col 3        |
308| Row 2 Col 1    | some colspan (note the double pipe) ||
309| Row 3 Col 1    | Row 3 Col 2     | Row 3 Col 3        |
310
311Table rows have to start and end with a ''|'' for normal rows or a ''^'' for headers.
312
313  ^ Heading 1      ^ Heading 2       ^ Heading 3          ^
314  | Row 1 Col 1    | Row 1 Col 2     | Row 1 Col 3        |
315  | Row 2 Col 1    | some colspan (note the double pipe) ||
316  | Row 3 Col 1    | Row 3 Col 2     | Row 3 Col 3        |
317
318To connect cells horizontally, just make the next cell completely empty as shown above. Be sure to have always the same amount of cell separators!
319
320Vertical tableheaders are possible, too.
321
322|              ^ Heading 1            ^ Heading 2          ^
323^ Heading 3    | Row 1 Col 2          | Row 1 Col 3        |
324^ Heading 4    | no colspan this time |                    |
325^ Heading 5    | Row 2 Col 2          | Row 2 Col 3        |
326
327As you can see, it's the cell separator before a cell which decides about the formatting:
328
329  |              ^ Heading 1            ^ Heading 2          ^
330  ^ Heading 3    | Row 1 Col 2          | Row 1 Col 3        |
331  ^ Heading 4    | no colspan this time |                    |
332  ^ Heading 5    | Row 2 Col 2          | Row 2 Col 3        |
333
334You can have rowspans (vertically connected cells) by adding ''%%:::%%'' into the cells below the one to which they should connect.
335
336^ Heading 1      ^ Heading 2                  ^ Heading 3          ^
337| Row 1 Col 1    | this cell spans vertically | Row 1 Col 3        |
338| Row 2 Col 1    | :::                        | Row 2 Col 3        |
339| Row 3 Col 1    | :::                        | Row 2 Col 3        |
340
341Apart from the rowspan syntax those cells should not contain anything else.
342
343  ^ Heading 1      ^ Heading 2                  ^ Heading 3          ^
344  | Row 1 Col 1    | this cell spans vertically | Row 1 Col 3        |
345  | Row 2 Col 1    | :::                        | Row 2 Col 3        |
346  | Row 3 Col 1    | :::                        | Row 2 Col 3        |
347
348You can align the table contents, too. Just add at least two whitespaces at the opposite end of your text: Add two spaces on the left to align right, two spaces on the right to align left and two spaces at least at both ends for centered text.
349
350^           Table with alignment           ^^^
351|         right|    center    |left          |
352|left          |         right|    center    |
353| xxxxxxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxxxxxx |
354
355This is how it looks in the source:
356
357  ^           Table with alignment           ^^^
358  |         right|    center    |left          |
359  |left          |         right|    center    |
360  | xxxxxxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxxxxxx | xxxxxxxxxxxx |
361
362Note: Vertical alignment is not supported.
363
364===== No Formatting =====
365
366If you need to display text exactly like it is typed (without any formatting), enclose the area either with ''%%<nowiki>%%'' tags or even simpler, with double percent signs ''<nowiki>%%</nowiki>''.
367
368<nowiki>
369This is some text which contains addresses like this: http://www.splitbrain.org and **formatting**, but nothing is done with it.
370</nowiki>
371The same is true for %%//__this__ text// with a smiley ;-)%%.
372
373  <nowiki>
374  This is some text which contains addresses like this: http://www.splitbrain.org and **formatting**, but nothing is done with it.
375  </nowiki>
376  The same is true for %%//__this__ text// with a smiley ;-)%%.
377
378===== Code Blocks =====
379
380You can include code blocks into your documents by either indenting them by at least two spaces (like used for the previous examples) or by using the tags ''%%<code>%%'' or ''%%<file>%%''.
381
382  This is text is indented by two spaces.
383
384<code>
385This is preformatted code all spaces are preserved: like              <-this
386</code>
387
388<file>
389This is pretty much the same, but you could use it to show that you quoted a file.
390</file>
391
392Those blocks were created by this source:
393
394    This is text is indented by two spaces.
395
396  <code>
397  This is preformatted code all spaces are preserved: like              <-this
398  </code>
399
400  <file>
401  This is pretty much the same, but you could use it to show that you quoted a file.
402  </file>
403
404==== Syntax Highlighting ====
405
406[[wiki:DokuWiki]] can highlight sourcecode, which makes it easier to read. It uses the [[http://qbnz.com/highlighter/|GeSHi]] Generic Syntax Highlighter -- so any language supported by GeSHi is supported. The syntax uses the same code and file blocks described in the previous section, but this time the name of the language syntax to be highlighted is included inside the tag, e.g. ''<nowiki><code java></nowiki>'' or ''<nowiki><file java></nowiki>''.
407
408<code java>
409/**
410 * The HelloWorldApp class implements an application that
411 * simply displays "Hello World!" to the standard output.
412 */
413class HelloWorldApp {
414    public static void main(String[] args) {
415        System.out.println("Hello World!"); //Display the string.
416    }
417}
418</code>
419
420The following language strings are currently recognized: //4cs 6502acme 6502kickass 6502tasm 68000devpac abap actionscript3 actionscript ada aimms algol68 apache applescript apt_sources arm asm asp asymptote autoconf autohotkey autoit avisynth awk bascomavr bash basic4gl batch bf biblatex bibtex blitzbasic bnf boo caddcl cadlisp ceylon cfdg cfm chaiscript chapel cil c_loadrunner clojure c_mac cmake cobol coffeescript c cpp cpp-qt cpp-winapi csharp css cuesheet c_winapi dart dcl dcpu16 dcs delphi diff div dos dot d ecmascript eiffel email epc e erlang euphoria ezt f1 falcon fo fortran freebasic freeswitch fsharp gambas gdb genero genie gettext glsl gml gnuplot go groovy gwbasic haskell haxe hicest hq9plus html html4strict html5 icon idl ini inno intercal io ispfpanel java5 java javascript jcl j jquery julia kixtart klonec klonecpp kotlin latex lb ldif lisp llvm locobasic logtalk lolcode lotusformulas lotusscript lscript lsl2 lua m68k magiksf make mapbasic mathematica matlab mercury metapost mirc mk-61 mmix modula2 modula3 mpasm mxml mysql nagios netrexx newlisp nginx nimrod nsis oberon2 objc objeck ocaml-brief ocaml octave oobas oorexx oracle11 oracle8 oxygene oz parasail parigp pascal pcre perl6 perl per pf phix php-brief php pic16 pike pixelbender pli plsql postgresql postscript povray powerbuilder powershell proftpd progress prolog properties providex purebasic pycon pys60 python qbasic qml q racket rails rbs rebol reg rexx robots roff rpmspec rsplus ruby rust sas sass scala scheme scilab scl sdlbasic smalltalk smarty spark sparql sql sshconfig standardml stonescript swift systemverilog tclegg tcl teraterm texgraph text thinbasic tsql twig typoscript unicon upc urbi uscript vala vbnet vb vbscript vedit verilog vhdl vim visualfoxpro visualprolog whitespace whois winbatch wolfram xbasic xml xojo xorg_conf xpp yaml z80 zxbasic//
421
422There are additional [[doku>syntax_highlighting|advanced options]] available for syntax highlighting, such as highlighting lines or adding line numbers.
423
424==== Downloadable Code Blocks ====
425
426When you use the ''%%<code>%%'' or ''%%<file>%%'' syntax as above, you might want to make the shown code available for download as well. You can do this by specifying a file name after language code like this:
427
428<code>
429<file php myexample.php>
430<?php echo "hello world!"; ?>
431</file>
432</code>
433
434<file php myexample.php>
435<?php echo "hello world!"; ?>
436</file>
437
438If you don't want any highlighting but want a downloadable file, specify a dash (''-'') as the language code: ''%%<code - myfile.foo>%%''.
439
440
441===== Embedding HTML and PHP =====
442
443You can embed raw HTML or PHP code into your documents by using the ''%%<html>%%'' or ''%%<php>%%'' tags. (Use uppercase tags if you need to enclose block level elements.)
444
445HTML example:
446
447<code>
448<html>
449This is some <span style="color:red;font-size:150%;">inline HTML</span>
450</html>
451<HTML>
452<p style="border:2px dashed red;">And this is some block HTML</p>
453</HTML>
454</code>
455
456<html>
457This is some <span style="color:red;font-size:150%;">inline HTML</span>
458</html>
459<HTML>
460<p style="border:2px dashed red;">And this is some block HTML</p>
461</HTML>
462
463PHP example:
464
465<code>
466<php>
467echo 'The PHP version: ';
468echo phpversion();
469echo ' (generated inline HTML)';
470</php>
471<PHP>
472echo '<table class="inline"><tr><td>The same, but inside a block level element:</td>';
473echo '<td>'.phpversion().'</td>';
474echo '</tr></table>';
475</PHP>
476</code>
477
478<php>
479echo 'The PHP version: ';
480echo phpversion();
481echo ' (inline HTML)';
482</php>
483<PHP>
484echo '<table class="inline"><tr><td>The same, but inside a block level element:</td>';
485echo '<td>'.phpversion().'</td>';
486echo '</tr></table>';
487</PHP>
488
489**Please Note**: HTML and PHP embedding is disabled by default in the configuration. If disabled, the code is displayed instead of executed.
490
491===== RSS/ATOM Feed Aggregation =====
492[[DokuWiki]] can integrate data from external XML feeds. For parsing the XML feeds, [[http://simplepie.org/|SimplePie]] is used. All formats understood by SimplePie can be used in DokuWiki as well. You can influence the rendering by multiple additional space separated parameters:
493
494^ Parameter  ^ Description ^
495| any number | will be used as maximum number items to show, defaults to 8 |
496| reverse    | display the last items in the feed first |
497| author     | show item authors names |
498| date       | show item dates |
499| description| show the item description. If [[doku>config:htmlok|HTML]] is disabled all tags will be stripped |
500| nosort     | do not sort the items in the feed |
501| //n//[dhm] | refresh period, where d=days, h=hours, m=minutes. (e.g. 12h = 12 hours). |
502
503The refresh period defaults to 4 hours. Any value below 10 minutes will be treated as 10 minutes. [[wiki:DokuWiki]] will generally try to supply a cached version of a page, obviously this is inappropriate when the page contains dynamic external content. The parameter tells [[wiki:DokuWiki]] to re-render the page if it is more than //refresh period// since the page was last rendered.
504
505By default the feed will be sorted by date, newest items first. You can sort it by oldest first using the ''reverse'' parameter, or display the feed as is with ''nosort''.
506
507**Example:**
508
509  {{rss>http://slashdot.org/index.rss 5 author date 1h }}
510
511{{rss>http://slashdot.org/index.rss 5 author date 1h }}
512
513
514===== Control Macros =====
515
516Some syntax influences how DokuWiki renders a page without creating any output it self. The following control macros are availble:
517
518^ Macro           ^ Description |
519| %%~~NOTOC~~%%   | If this macro is found on the page, no table of contents will be created |
520| %%~~NOCACHE~~%% | DokuWiki caches all output by default. Sometimes this might not be wanted (eg. when the %%<php>%% syntax above is used), adding this macro will force DokuWiki to rerender a page on every call |
521
522===== Syntax Plugins =====
523
524DokuWiki's syntax can be extended by [[doku>plugins|Plugins]]. How the installed plugins are used is described on their appropriate description pages. The following syntax plugins are available in this particular DokuWiki installation:
525
526~~INFO:syntaxplugins~~
527